We’ve all experienced those moments when we get an urge to do something without thinking it through. Buying items online that we don’t need, texting someone we shouldn’t, eating or drinking too much – these are all examples of impulsive behavior. While occasional impulsivity is common and normal, frequent impulsive acts can be problematic and a sign of an underlying mental health issue. In this article, we will explore the psychology behind impulsivity, its connection to mental health, and ways to gain control over impulsive urges.
What is Impulsivity?
Impulsivity is defined as acting without forethought or regard for consequences. It involves difficulty controlling urges, impatience, poor planning, and seeking stimulation or euphoria. Impulsive actions are often regretted after the fact. While nearly everyone acts impulsively on occasion, frequent impulsivity is considered problematic. It can lead to issues like overspending, overeating, drug or alcohol abuse, anger outbursts, and relationship conflicts.
Impulsivity and the Brain
Impulsivity stems from the brain’s executive functions and reward system not working together optimally. Executive functions refer to cognitive processes that allow us to control our thoughts, emotions, and behavior, like self-control, planning, and attention. The brain’s reward system provides motivation through seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. Ideally, the executive and reward centers balance each other out. But when the reward system is too strong or executive functions too weak, impulsivity can take over.
On a biological level, impulsivity may be linked to reduced serotonin transmission. Serotonin modulates many brain functions including mood, aggression, and inhibition. Low serotonin is associated with poor impulse control. The prefrontal cortex, which governs planning and self-regulation, may also be underactive in impulsive individuals. This can make it hard to think ahead or weigh consequences before acting.
Links to Mental Health Conditions
For many people, constant impulsivity is symptomatic of an underlying mental health disorder. ADHD, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia, and conduct disorders all feature impulsivity as a primary characteristic. Problem gambling and kleptomania (compulsive stealing) are also fundamentally impulsive conditions. Here’s an overview of some of the main mental health links:
- ADHD – Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two of the main symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). People with ADHD often act first and think later, have trouble sitting still, and may exhibit addictive behaviors like compulsive video gaming.
- Bipolar Disorder – The manic phase of bipolar disorder is defined by heightened mood, energy, and impulsivity. People may impulsively spend, seek thrills, indulge vices, or take part in other risky behaviors that seem fun in the moment.
- Borderline Personality Disorder – Borderline personality disorder (BPD) causes instability in behavior, relationships, and mood, including impulsive actions like reckless driving, gambling, or reckless sex. People with BPD feel emotions intensely and have difficulty controlling reactions.
- Substance Abuse – Since drugs and alcohol lower inhibitions, addiction goes hand-in-hand with increased impulsivity. Those prone to impulsivity have a higher risk of developing a substance abuse problem. The loss of control that comes with addiction further exacerbates impulsive tendencies.
Overcoming Impulsive Behaviors
If you struggle with impulsive urges, don’t lose hope. There are strategies and treatments that can help strengthen your mental management skills. Here are some tips for getting impulsivity under control:
- Slow down – When you get an impulse, pause and give yourself time to think before acting. Take a few deep breaths or count to 10 to let the urge pass.
- Identify triggers – Keep a log of your impulsive behaviors to become aware of situations, emotions, or thought patterns that trigger them. This allows you to anticipate urges and better manage them.
- Create reminders – Notes and phone alarms can prompt you to stop and evaluate a situation when you feel an impulsive urge coming on.
- Reward good choices – Celebrate yourself each day you resist an impulsive act to reinforce self-control.
- Limit access – Avoid temptation by restricting access to triggers like your credit cards, car keys, or the pantry. Ask someone to hold your money or lock up items.
- Exercise – Physical activity naturally boosts serotonin, relieves stress, and focuses mental energy in a healthy way.
- Therapy – Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective for changing thought patterns contributing to impulsivity. Dialectical behavior therapy also teaches distress tolerance skills.
- Medication – If impulsivity relates to a diagnosed mental disorder, prescribed medications can help regulate brain function. ADHD, for example, is often treated with stimulant medications that activate the prefrontal cortex. Mood stabilizers and antipsychotics may also curb impulsive behavior.
Impulsivity is a natural human tendency, but frequent impulsive acts signal poor self-control requiring attention. If impulsivity interferes with your daily life, speak to a mental health professional. Counseling combined with lifestyle changes can help you master your impulses and improve decision-making. With proper support, you can find balance between thoughtful action and spontaneity.